Thursday, May 14, 2020

DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS. I will post Exercises!




DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: PART I

Notes:
  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.
The object that directly receives the action of the verb is called the direct object.
Bill hit the ball.
“Ball” receives the action of the verb “hit.”
Sherry reads the book.
“Book” receives the action of the verb “reads.”
The direct object can also be a person.
Sherry hit Bill.
(DO=Bill)
The direct object answers the question “what?” or “whom?” with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.
Bill hit the ball.
Bill hit what?
Bill hit the ball.
Sherry hit Bill.
Sherry hit whom?
Sherry hit Bill.
Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.
Example 1
Paul bought the flowers. He took the flowers home and gave the flowers to his wife.
Example 2
Paul bought the flowers. He took them home and gave them to his wife.
When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:
me (me)
te (you-familiar)
lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)
nos (us)
os (you-all-familiar)
los, las (them, you-all-formal)
In an affirmative statement with one verb, the direct object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.
Tengo = I have
Tengo la pluma. = I have the pen.
La tengo. = I have it.
The pronoun (la) comes immediately before the verb (tengo).
Notice that if the subject of the sentence changes, this does not affect the direct object pronoun.
Juan la tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene la pluma. = John has the pen.
Juan la tiene. = John has it.
and
María la tiene.
María tiene = Mary has
María tiene la pluma. = Mary has the pen.
María la tiene. = Mary has it.
However, if the direct object of the sentence changes to a masculine noun, the masculine pronoun must be used.
Juan lo tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene el libro. = John has the book.
Juan lo tiene. = John has it.
but
Juan la tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene la pluma. = John has the pen.
Juan la tiene. = John has it.
Likewise, if the direct object of the sentence changes from singular to plural, the plural pronoun must be used.
Juan lo tiene.
Juan tiene = John has
Juan tiene el libro. = John has the book.
Juan lo tiene. = John has it.
but
María los tiene.
María tiene = Mary has
María tiene los libros. = Mary has the books.
María los tiene. = Mary has them.
Look at how Spanish and English are different.
“Lo tengo” and “La tengo” BOTH mean “I have it.”

Differences:

  1. “It” has two forms in Spanish: lo, la
  2. “Tengo” one word in Spanish = two words in English (I have)
  3. The word order is different. In Spanish, the pronoun (lo, la) comes before the verb; in English, the pronoun (it) comes after the verb.
When you try to translate literally from English to Spanish, sometimes it works very well:
John eats the soup.
John = Juan
John eats = Juan come
John eats the = Juan come la
John eats the soup = Juan come la sopa.
Other times, direct translation doesn’t work so well:
I eat the soup.
I = Yo
I eat = Yo como
I eat the = Yo como la
I eat the soup = Yo como la sopa.
Because “como” means “I eat,” the word “yo” is redundant. A better translation might be:
I eat the soup.
Como la sopa.
Sometimes, when you try to translate literally, you run into much bigger problems:
I eat it. (the soup – la sopa)
I = Yo
I eat = Yo como
I eat it. = Yo como la.
This is completely incorrect!
The correct translation would be:
I eat it. (the soup)
La como.
As you can see, directly translating sentences with direct object pronouns doesn’t work, so … don’t do it! There is a better, easier way.
Learn to translate groups of words, rather than individual words. The first step is to learn to view two Spanish words as a single phrase.
Try to think of each line as a single phrase, not two separate words:
la como
lo como
la leo

lo leo
la veo
lo veo
la tengo
lo tengo
la compro
lo compro
Read each line again. Before you do, glance at the translation beneath it. Then, read each line thinking of it as a phrase that has the same meaning as the English phrase below it.
la como
I eat it (feminine DO – la sopa, la comida, etc.)
lo como
I eat it (masculine DO – el pollo, el arroz, etc.)
la leo
I read it
lo leo
I read it
la veo
I see it
lo veo
I see it
la tengo
I have it
lo tengo
I have it
la compro
I buy it
lo compro
I buy it
In the previous examples, it is clear that the subject of the sentence is “I” because the verbs are all conjugated in the “yo” form. With other verb forms, it is often desirable to add a word to clarify the subject.
Juan la come. (la comida)
Juan eats it.
María lo tiene. (el libro)
María has it.
El chico la compra. (la pluma)
The boy buys it.
La chica lo ve. (el edificio)
The girl sees it.
Ustedes lo leen. (el periódico)
You-all read it.
Now, some examples of plural direct objects.
Juan come dos sándwiches.
Los come. or Juan los come.
María tiene tres libros.
Los tiene. or María los tiene.
El chico compra dos revistas.
Las compra. or El chico las compra.
La chica ve dos coches.
Los ve. or La chica los ve.
Ella compra dos televisores.
Los compra. or Ella los compra.
Tenemos dos mesas.
Las tenemos. or Nosotros las tenemos.
Now, some examples where the direct object is a person.
I know you.
Te conozco.
She loves him.
Ella lo ama.
She loves me.
Ella me ama.
Juan sees her.
Juan la ve.
They call us.
Ellos nos llaman.
We call them.
Los llamamos.
Just as no one has ever learned to ride a bicycle by reading about it, neither will you learn to use direct object pronouns simply by reading this lesson. The key to success, as always, is to practice, practice, practice.

INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: PART I



Notes:
  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

The indirect object (IO) tells us where the direct object (DO) is going.
He gives the book to María.
DO=Book
Where is the book going?
To María.
IO=María

He gives María the book.
DO=Book
Where is the book going?
To María.
IO=María
The indirect object answers the question “To whom?” or “For whom?” the action of the verb is performed.
He gives María the book.
To whom does he give the book?
To María.
IO=María
He buys me flowers.
For whom does he buy the flowers?
For me.
IO=me
Sentences that have an indirect object usually also have a direct object. Remember, the IO tells us where the DO is going. Notice how the sentences below just wouldn’t work without a direct object.
He gives María . . .
the book, the pen, the diamond, etc.
He buys me . . .
flowers, candy, an ironing board, etc.
Sometimes the direct object is not stated; rather it is implied, or understood.
My mother writes me every week.
DO=letter (understood)
IO=me
(My mother writes me a letter every week.)
She told him.
DO=it (understood)
IO=him
(She told it to him.)
To identify the indirect object use our two guidelines:
  1. The IO tells us where the DO is going.
  2. The IO answers the question “to whom?” or “for whom” the action of the verb is performed.
When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:
me (me)
te (you-familiar)
le (him, her, you-formal)
nos (us)
os (you-all-familiar)
les (them, you-all-formal)
In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.
Juan me compra un regalo.
John buys me a gift.
John buys a gift for me.
Juan te compra un regalo.
John buys you a gift.
John buys a gift for you.
Juan le compra un regalo.
John buys her a gift.
John buys a gift for her.
Juan nos compra un regalo.
John buys us a gift.
John buys a gift for us.
Juan os compra un regalo.
John buys you-all (familiar) a gift.
John buys a gift for you-all.
Juan les compra un regalo.
John buys them a gift.
John buys a gift for them.
Now, focus in on one part of each of the previous examples:
Juan me compra un regalo.
John buys (for) me a gift.
Juan te compra un regalo.
John buys (for) you a gift.
Juan le compra un regalo.
John buys (for) her a gift.
Juan nos compra un regalo.
John buys (for) us a gift.
Juan os compra un regalo.
John buys (for) you-all (familiar) a gift.
Juan les compra un regalo.
John buys (for) them a gift.
Let’s extract the IO phrase and its English equivalent:
me compra
buys (for) me
te compra
buys (for) you
le compra
buys (for) her
nos compra
buys (for) us
os compra
buys (for) you-all
les compra
buys (for) them
Just like with the direct object, the indirect object presents a problem if one tries to translate word-for-word:
Juan me compra un regalo.
John for me he buys a gift.
The key to learning to use the indirect object pronouns is the same as the key for direct object pronouns. You must learn to think in phrases, not words. The phrases consist of a pronoun and a conjugated verb. In the following examples, note that the IO remains the same, while the subject of the phrase changes.
me compra
he buys me
me compran
they buy me
me compras
you buy me
The IO pronouns le and les present a special problem because they are ambiguous. That is, they can stand for different things.
le
to (for) him
to (for) her
to (for) you-formal
les
to (for) them
to (for) you-all-formal
The following sentences, while grammatically correct, are ambiguous:
Ella le escribe una carta.
Ella les escribe una carta.
Out of context, there is no way we can know the meaning.
Ella le escribe una carta.
She writes him a letter.
She writes her a letter.
She writes you (formal) a letter.
Ella les escribe una carta.
She writes them a letter.
She writes you-all (formal) a letter.
Since le and les can mean more than one thing, a prepositional phrase is often added to remove the ambiguity.
Ella le escribe a Juan una carta.
Ella le escribe a su hermana una carta.
Ella le escribe a usted una carta.
Ella les escribe a sus padres una carta.
Ella les escribe a ustedes una carta.
Sometimes a prepositional phrase is added not for clarity, but rather for emphasis.
Juan me da a mí el dinero.
John gives me the money.
(emphasizing that the money is given to me and not to someone else)
Juan te da a ti el dinero.
John gives you the money. (emphasis on you)
There is no ambiguity in the following sentence. It can only mean one thing.
Juan me da el dinero.
John gives me the money.
The addition of a prepositional phrase merely adds emphasis.
Juan me da a mí el dinero.
John gives me the money.
Let’s sum up the important points of this lesson:
  • The IO tells us where the DO is going.
  • The IO answers the question “to whom” or “for whom.”
  • Sentences that have an IO usually also have a DO
  • Sometimes the DO is not stated, but rather is implied, or understood.
  • The IO pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, os, les.
  • Place the pronoun before the conjugated verb.
  • Think in phrases, do not translate word-for-word.
  • Le and les are ambiguous.
  • Prepositional phrases are often used for clarity and for emphasis.
      Here are the direct object pronouns and the indirect object pronouns side by side:
      DO PronounsIO PronounsEnglish Equivalent
      mememe
      teteyou (familiar)
      lo, lalehim, her, it, you (formal)
      nosnosus
      ososyou-all (familiar)
      los, laslesthem, you-all (formal)

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