Bill hit the ball.“Ball” receives the action of the verb “hit.”
Sherry reads the book.“Book” receives the action of the verb “reads.”
Sherry hit Bill.(DO=Bill)
Bill hit the ball.Bill hit what? The ball.
Sherry hit Bill.Sherry hit whom? Bill.
Paul bought the flowers. He took the flowers home and gave the flowers to his wife.
Paul bought the flowers. He took them home and gave them to his wife.
me (me)te (you-familiar)lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)
nos (us)os (you-all-familiar)los, las (them, you-all-formal)
I buy the books.Compro los libros.Los compro. (I buy them.)
I don’t buy the books.No compro los libros.No los compro. (I don’t buy them.)
Los compras.No los compras.
Guadalupe siempre lo estudia.Guadalupe nunca lo estudia.
Ellos nos conocen.Ellos no nos conocen.
He gives the book to María.DO=Book
Where is the book going?To María.
He gives María the book.DO=Book
Where is the book going?To María.
He gives María the book.To whom does he give the book?To María.
He buys me flowers.For whom does he buy the flowers?For me.
He gives María . . .the book, the pen, the diamond, etc.
He buys me . . .flowers, candy, an ironing board, etc.
My mother writes me every week.DO=letter (understood)IO=me(My mother writes me a letter every week.)
She told him.DO=it (understood)IO=him(She told it to him.)
me (me)te (you-familiar)le (him, her, you-formal)
nos (us)os (you-all-familiar)les (them, you-all-formal)
Él no me compra nada.He doesn’t buy me anything.He doesn’t buy anything for me.
Ella no te trae el desayuno.She doesn’t bring you breakfast.She doesn’t bring breakfast for you.
No le mando a él la cuenta.I don’t send him the bill.I don’t send the bill to him.
Ellos no nos compran ningún regalo.They don’t buy us any gifts.They don’t buy any gifts for us.
Él me compra algo.Él no me compra nada.
Ella te trae el desayuno.Ella no te trae el desayuno.
Le mando a él la cuenta.No le mando a él la cuenta.
Ellos nos compran regalos.Ellos no nos compran ningún regalo.
no me comprahe doesn’t buy (for) me
no me comprasyou don’t buy (for) me
leto (for) himto (for) herto (for) you-formal
lesto (for) themto (for) you-all-formal
Ella no le escribe una carta.Ella no les escribe una carta.
Ella no le escribe una carta.She doesn’t write him a letter.She doesn’t write her a letter.She doesn’t write you (formal) a letter.
Ella no les escribe una carta.She doesn’t write them a letter.She doesn’t write you-all (formal) a letter.
Ella no le escribe a Juan una carta.Ella no le escribe a su hermana una carta.Ella no le escribe a usted una carta.
Ella no les escribe a sus padres una carta.Ella no les escribe a ustedes una carta.
Juan no me da a mí el dinero.John doesn’t give me the money.(emphasizing that the money is not given to me but rather to someone else)
Juan no te da a ti el dinero.John doesn’t give you the money. (emphasis on you)
Juan no me da el dinero.John doesn’t give me the money.
Juan no me da a mí el dinero.John doesn’t give me the money.
The IO tells us where the DO is going.
The IO answers the question “to whom” or “for whom.”
In order for a sentence to have a IO, it must also have a DO.
Sometimes the DO is not stated, but rather is implied, or understood.
The IO pronouns are: me, te, le, nos, os, les.
In a negative sentence, place the pronoun between the negative word and the conjugated verb.
Think in phrases, do not translate word-for-word.
Le and les are ambiguous.
Prepositional phrases are often used for clarity and for emphasis.