Tuesday, May 19, 2020

DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS III.


DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: PART III

Notes:
  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

Remember, a direct object receives the action of the verb.
Bill hit the ball.
“Ball” receives the action of the verb “hit.”
Sherry reads the book.
“Book” receives the action of the verb “reads.”
And, the direct object can also be a person.
Sherry hit Bill.
(DO=Bill)
Also, remember that the direct object answers the question “what?” or “whom?” with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.
Bill hit the ball.
Bill hit what? The ball.
Sherry hit Bill.
Sherry hit whom? Bill.
Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.
Example 1
Paul bought the flowers. He took the flowers home and gave the flowers to his wife.
Example 2
Paul bought the flowers. He took them home and gave them to his wife.
When the pronoun replaces the name of the direct object, use the following pronouns:
me (me)
te (you-familiar)
lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)
nos (us)
os (you-all-familiar)
los, las (them, you-all-formal)
When a sentence has two verbs, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb remains in the infinitive form.
poder
to be able
pagar
to pay
Puedo pagar diez pesos.
I am able to pay 10 pesos.
preferir
to prefer
hablar
to speak
Elena prefiere hablar español.
Elena prefers to speak Spanish.
In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the direct object pronoun.
  1. Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.
  2. Attach it directly to the infinitive.
Here are examples of the direct object pronoun placed before the conjugated verb:
Lo quiero ver.
I want to see it.
Lo debemos comprar.
We should buy it.
María nos debe visitar.
Mary should visit us.
Juan lo necesita lavar.
John needs to wash it.
Here are examples of the direct object pronoun attached directly to the infinitive:
Quiero verlo.
I want to see it.
Debemos comprarlo.
We should buy it.
María debe visitarnos.
Mary should visit us.
Juan necesita lavarlo.
John needs to wash it.
Here are the two methods side by side. Neither method is “better” than the other.
Lo quiero ver.
Quiero verlo.
I want to see it.
Lo debemos comprar.
Debemos comprarlo.
We should buy it.
María nos debe visitar.
María debe visitarnos.
Mary should visit us.
Juan lo necesita lavar.
Juan necesita lavarlo.
John needs to wash it.
These same rules apply for questions and negative statements.
¿Lo debemos comprar?
¿Debemos comprarlo?
Should we buy it?
Juan no lo necesita lavar.
Juan no necesita lavarlo.
John doesn’t need to wash it.


 DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS PART III: TEST #1

Fill in the blank in order to form sentences that are true and correct.

    1.  
      Usted  debe comprar.
    2.  
      Usted  comprarla.
    3.  
       quiero ver.
    4.  
      Quiero  .
    5.  
       tenemos que comprar.
    6.  
      Tenemos que  .
    7.  
      La chica la  estudiar.
    8.  
      La chica necesita  .
    9.  
      ¿La  invitar?
    10.  
      ¿Quiero 



INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: PART III

Notes:
  1. The written lesson is below.
  2. Links to quizzes, tests, etc. are to the left.

Remember, the indirect object answers the question “To whom?” or “For whom?” the action of the verb is performed.
He gives María the book.
To whom does he give the book?
To María.
IO=María
He buys me flowers.
For whom does he buy the flowers?
For me.
IO=me
To identify the indirect object use our two guidelines:
  1. The IO tells us where the DO is going.
  2. The IO answers the question “to whom?” or “for whom” the action of the verb is performed.
When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:
me (me)
te (you-familiar)
le (him, her, you-formal)
nos (us)
os (you-all-familiar)
les (them, you-all-formal)
In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.
Juan me compra un regalo.
John buys me a gift.
John buys a gift for me.
Juan nos compra un regalo.
John buys us a gift.
John buys a gift for us.
When a sentence has two verbs, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb remains in the infinitive form.
poder
to be able
pagar
to pay
Puedo pagar diez pesos.
I am able to pay 10 pesos.
preferir
to prefer
hablar
to speak
Elena prefiere hablar español.
Elena prefers to speak Spanish.
In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the indirect object pronoun.
  1. Place it immediately before the conjugated verb
  2. Attach it directly to the infinitive
Here are examples of the indirect object pronoun placed before the conjugated verb:
Me necesitas dar un regalo.
You need to give me a gift.
Te necesito comprar un sombrero.
I need to buy you a hat.
Juan nos debe prestar el dinero.
Juan must lend us the money.
María le quiere alquilar a Juan el apartamento.
María wants to rent the apartment to Juan.
Here are examples of the indirect object pronoun attached directly to the infinitive:
Necesitas darme un regalo.
You need to give me a gift.
Necesito comprarte un sombrero.
I need to buy you a hat.
Juan debe prestarnos el dinero.
Juan must lend us the money.
María quiere alquilarle a Juan el apartamento.
María wants to rent the apartment to Juan.
Here are the two methods side by side. Neither method is “better” than the other.
Me necesitas dar un regalo.
Necesitas darme un regalo.
You need to give me a gift.
Te necesito comprar un sombrero.
Necesito comprarte un sombrero.
I need to buy you a hat.
Juan nos debe prestar el dinero.
Juan debe prestarnos el dinero.
Juan must lend us the money.
María le quiere alquilar a Juan el apartamento.
María quiere alquilarle a Juan el apartamento.
María wants to rent the apartment to Juan.
When reading or hearing sentences like these, you must learn to recognize whole groups of words, rather than inspecting each word independently.
Me necesitas dar un regalo.
Me necesitas dar = You need to give me
Necesitas darme un regalo.
Necesitas darme = You need to give me
Te necesito comprar un sombrero.
Te necesito comprar = I need to buy you
Necesito comprarte un sombrero.
Necesito comprarte = I need to buy you
  • Your success in being able to recognize these groups is largely dependent upon having learned previous material — namely verb conjugation.
  • You need to be able to quickly recognize a conjugated verb and an infinitive. You need to automatically recognize “necesito comprar” as “I need to buy.”
  • If you can do that, it is just one small step to recognize “te necesito comprar” as “I need to buy for you.” From there, the final step is easy: “Te necesito comprar un regalo.”

INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS PART III: TEST #1

  1. Fill in the blank in order to form translations that are true and correct.

    1.  
      Él me quiere  el dinero.
    2.  
      Él quiere  el dinero.
    3.  
       queremos vender el auto.
    4.  
      Queremos  el auto.
  2. Fill in the blank in order to form sentences that are true and correct.

    1.  
      Debemos  el apartamento.
    2.  
       debemos alquilar el apartamento.
  3. Translate the following negative sentences.

    1.  
      No tengo que  nada.
    2.  
      No  tengo que decir nada.
    3.  
      Ella nunca puede  el auto.
    4.  
      Ella nunca  puede comprar el auto.


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