Thursday, April 30, 2020

Aprender español - Describir a personas: ser, estar, tener y llevar (niv...

¿Sabes Describir Personas e Imágenes En Español? Do you Know How To Describe People And Pictures In Spanish? Do The Exercises And I Will Help You!!



DESCRIPCIÓN DE PERSONAS E IMÁGENES


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En la imagen hay una mujer con dos perros. Los perros están en primer plano. Los dos son bastante grandes, aunque el de la izquierda es algo más grande que el de la derechaUno de los perros es marrón y el otro negro. Da la impresión de que están a punto de echar a correr detrás de la pelota roja que podemos ver en la parte superior izquierda de la imagen. Detrás de los perros, en segundo planovemos a la dueña, que lleva a los animales atados con una correa. Es una mujer joven, de unos 30 años, de pelo castaño y parece que no muy alta. Está lejos, así que no podemos verla con detalle. Lleva ropa cómoda: una sudadera gris, unos pantalones vaqueros y unas deportivas. La mujer y sus dos perros están en un lugar amplio y luminoso. Al fondo se ven unos cuantos árboles. Por eso, creo que están en un bosque. Como la chica no está muy abrigada, imagino que es primavera y, por la luz de la imagen, quizás sea por la tarde.



¡Ahora Tú! Completa la descripción con las palabras que faltan.
En la imagen podemos  a una pareja joven, unos veinticinco años, que está 

 en un banco dando de comer a las palomas. Están en un espacio 
, concretamente en un parque.   hay un pequeño río y árboles. Por la expresión de sus caras, me   la impresión de que están felices y relajados. Él está mirando las palomas y   que tiene comida para pájaros. Ella tiene una paloma sobre su mano y está mirando a la cámara. Los dos   ropa de entretiempo: él, un pantalón largo, un jersey fino y unas deportivas; ella, unos vaqueros, una blusa y unas sandalias. Además, los dos llevan gafas de sol. Por esto y por la luz de la imagen, es   que sea primavera y que la foto se haya tomado al mediodía.



¡Ahora, describe esta imagen en 50 palabras! Now, describe the picture in 50 words!!
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Describe la imagen:



Describe esta imagen también:

How to form the PAST PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE in Spanish

Past Perfect Subjunctive in Spanish!! Advanced Stuff!


The pluperfect subjunctive (pretérito pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo) is used after specific verbs and expressions of doubt, wishes, hopes, personal opinions or feelings. It expresses actions that took place before a specific past time or that would have taken place under different conditions.
Learn about the conjugation and usage of the pluperfect subjunctive in Spanish grammar with Lingolia’s grammar rules and exercises. See indicative tenses for information about pluperfect indicative and tense comparison for the difference between the indicative and subjunctive mood in Spanish grammar.

Example

Me extrañó mucho que me hubieras mandado una postal de la Cordillera Cantábrica. Probablemente, me hubiera encantado la visita a la región. ¿Te imaginas qué hubiéramos visto lobos ibéricos?
Si me lo hubieras dicho antes, habría ido contigo

Usage

The subjunctive is used after specific expressions of wishes, hopes doubt, feeling or personal opinion. We use the past perfect subjunctive in the following cases:
  • in dependent clauses after certain expressions, when the subjunctive action had already taken place beforehand
    Example:
    Me extrañó mucho que me hubieras mandado una postal de la Cordillera Cantábrica.
  • action that could/would have taken place in the past (but did not take place)
    Example:
    Probablemente, me hubiera encantado la visita a la región.
    ¿Te imaginas qué hubiéramos visto lobos ibéricos?
  • in conditional clause type III si-clauses (unreal condition in the past)
  • Example:
    Si me lo hubieras dicho antes, habría ido contigo.

    Dependent Clauses

    We can only use the past perfect subjunctive (pretérito pluscuamperfecto subjuntivo) in a dependent clause when the verb in the main clause is in one of the following tenses.


    tense
    main clause
    dependent clause
    preterite
    Me alegró…

    (de) que hubiera venido.
    conditional
    Seguro que me alegraría
    conditional perfect
    Seguro que me habría alegrado

    personhaberparticiple
    yohubiera/hubiese
    hablado
    aprendido
    vivido
    hubieras/hubieses
    él/ella/ustedhubiera/hubiese
    nosotros/-ashubiéramos/hubiésemos
    vosotros/-ashubierais/hubieseis
    ellos/ellas/ustedeshubieran/hubiesen


    Past Participle

    We construct the past participle by removing the infinitive ending and adding the corresponding participle ending: -ado for -ar verbs or -ido for -er/-ir verbs.
    Example:
    hablar - hablado
    aprender - aprendido
    vivir - vivido

    Irregular past participles

    Some verbs have irregular participle forms. The most important irregular participle forms are listed in the table below:
    verbpast participletranslation
    abrirabiertoopen
    decirdichosay
    escribirescritowrite
    hacerhechodo/make
    imprimirimpresoprint
    morirmuertodie
    ponerpuestoset/place
    vervistosee
    volvervueltoreturn








Wednesday, April 29, 2020

How to form the PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE in Spanish. Start Your Journey To Fluency!

Spanish Present Perfect Subjunctive. Would You Like To Get Fluent In Spanish?


The present perfect subjunctive (el pretérito perfecto de subjuntivo) is used to describe past actions that are connected to the present, as well as actions that will have happened by a certain point in the future.



Forming the Present Perfect Subjunctive

The present perfect subjunctive is a combination of the present subjunctive of the verb haber
 and a past participle. It's very similar to the present perfect indicative, but is triggered by the same sorts of words and phrases as the present subjunctive.


The present perfect subjunctive is formed as follows:

Present Perfect Subjunctive Formula

present subjunctive of haber + past participle

Here's how to form haber in the present subjunctive.
SubjectHaber in the Present Subjunctive
yo
haya
hayas
él, ella, usted
haya
nosotros
hayamos
vosotros
hayáis
ellos, ellas, ustedes
hayan

Present Perfect Subjunctive Uses

The present perfect subjunctive is used to talk about past actions connected to the present, as well as actions that will have been completed in the future. Certain words and phrases, such as those expressing emotions and desires, trigger the use of the present perfect subjunctive.

1. Past Actions Connected to the Present

The present perfect subjunctive can be used to talk about actions that happened in the past but are relevant in the present. It's very common to see it used to talk about things that just happened.

Mi profesor duda que yo haya leído el libro.
My professor doubts that I have read the book.
Me asusto de que usted me haya llamado.
I am shocked that you called me.
Es bueno que hayamos hablado.
It is good that we talked.
Me asusto de que ellas no hayan bailado bien.
I am shocked that they didn't dance well.
Lamentamos que ella no haya podido venir a la fiesta.
We regret that she was unable to come to the party.


2. Actions That Will Have Been Completed in the Future

The present perfect subjunctive is also used to talk about things that are expected to be done by a point in the future.
Quiero que hayáis escrito 5 páginas para el lunes.
I want you to have written 5 pages by Monday.
Es posible que ustedes hayan vuelto para marzo.
It is possible that you will have returned by March.

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

SPANISH PAST SUBJUNCTIVE: How to form (conjugate) verbs in IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

Spanish Imperfect Subjunctive

The imperfect subjunctive (el imperfecto de subjuntivo) follows many of the same rules as the present subjunctive. Introduced with a preterite, imperfect, conditional, or past perfect verb in the independent clause, the imperfect subjunctive often refers to a previous experience, but can also refer to unlikely events or possibilities. Check out these examples of the imperfect subjunctive.
Si tuviera más dinero, viajaría por todo el mundo.
If I had more money, I would travel around the whole world.
Si yo fuera tú, no lo haría.
If I were you, I wouldn’t do it.

Imperfect Subjunctive Forms

Finding the Imperfect Subjunctive Stem

To conjugate a verb in the imperfect subjunctive, you'll need to know the third person plural (ellos, ellas) preterite form of the verb you're using. Why? Instead of using the infinitive for a stem, the imperfect subjunctive uses the third person plural of the preterite (minus the -ron). Whatever the third person preterite from of a verb is, whether regular or irregular, becomes the base for the imperfect subjunctive stem.

Imperfect Subjunctive Stem Examples

Here are the imperfect subjunctive stems of some common Spanish verbs.
InfinitiveThird Person Preterite FormImperfect Subjunctive Stem
caber
cupieron
cupie-
dar
dieron
die-
decir
dijeron
dije-
dormir
durmieron
durmie-
estar
estuvieron
estuvie-
haber
hubieron
hubie-
hablar
hablaron
habla-
hacer
hicieron
hicie-
ir
fueron
fue-
leer
leyeron
leye-
tener
tuvieron
tuvie-
pedir
pidieron
pidie-
poder
pudieron
pudie-
poner
pusieron
pusie-
preferir
prefirieron
prefirie-
querer
quisieron
quisie-
saber
supieron
supie-
sentir
sintieron
sintie-
ser
fueron
fue-
traducir
tradujeron
traduje-
traer
trajeron
traje-
ver
vieron
vie-

Imperfect Subjunctive Endings

When conjugating the imperfect subjunctive, you can choose from two different sets of endings. Both are correct, though use of the first set, whose yo ending is -ra, is more widespread.
SubjectSubjunctive 1 EndingsSubjunctive 2 Endings
yo-ra-se
-ras-ses
él, ella, usted-ra-se
nosotros-ramos-semos
vosotros-rais-seis
ellos, ellas, ustedes-ran-sen






Subjunctive 1

SubjectHablarHacerTraducir
yo
hablara
hiciera
tradujera
hablaras
hicieras
tradujeras
él, ella, usted
hablara
hiciera
tradujera
nosotros
habláramos
hiciéramos
tradujéramos
vosotros
hablarais
hicierais
tradujerais
ellos, ellas, ustedes
hablaran
hicieran
tradujeran

Subjunctive 2

SubjectHablarHacerTraducir
yo
hablase
hiciese
tradujese
hablases
hicieses
tradujeses
él, ella, usted
hablase
hiciese
tradujese
nosotros
hablásemos
hiciésemos
tradujésemos
vosotros
hablaseis
hicieseis
tradujeseis
ellos, ellas, ustedes
hablasen
hiciesen
tradujesen

Imperfect Subjunctive Uses

The imperfect subjunctive can be used to talk about past occurrences, current opinions of past events, doubts and wishes, as well as in if clauses and polite requests.

1. Past Occurrences

If the WEIRDO verb in the independent clause is in the preterite or the imperfect, then the subjunctive verb that follows will be imperfect.
Quise que vinieras/vinieses a mi fiesta.
I wanted you to come to my party.
Tenía miedo de que no lloviera/lloviese.
I was scared it wouldn't rain.
Le iba a prestar dinero para que se comprara un abrigo.
I was going to lend him money so he could buy a coat.

2. Current Opinions of Past Events

The imperfect subjunctive can also be used to express current emotions, doubts, etc. about something that happened in the past.
Es bueno que él se casara/casase.
It's good that he got married.
No me parece que el viaje fuera/fuese largo.
It doesn't seem to me that the journey was long.

3. Doubts and Wishes

It's common to see ojalá or ojalá que used with the imperfect subjunctive to express the idea of hoping for something that is unlikely to happen or is impossible.
Ojalá que nevara/nevase en Panamá.
I wish it were snowing in Panama.
Ojalá mi hermano se casara/casase.
I wish my brother were getting married.

4. If Clauses

When preceded by si (if), the imperfect subjunctive is often used to talk about hypotheticals. Note that the other verb in these constructions is in the conditional.
Si yo fuera/fuese reina, viajaría por todo el mundo.
If I were queen, I would travel all over the world.
Pintaría más seguido si tuviera/tuviese más tiempo.
I would paint more often if I had more time.

5. Polite Suggestions and Requests

The imperfect subjunctive can be used to make very polite suggestions or formal requests.

Quisiera/Quisiese dos semanas de vacaciones.
I would like two weeks of vacation.